The past 20 years have seen significant increases in the numbers of individuals incarcerated or under other forms of criminal justice supervision in the United States. These numbers are staggering—approximately 7.1 million adults in the United States are under some form of criminal justice supervision. An estimated one-half of all prisoners meet the criteria for diagnosis of mental illness, drug abuse or dependence - (NIH)

Despite the positive outcomes associated with in-jail treatment, two-thirds of jails do not offer treatment (SAMHSA). About two-thirds have self-help programs and about 30 percent have detoxification programs. Of jail inmates who reported ever having used drugs, only one in eight had participated in any treatment (even broadly defined) since their admission, and most of those reported were self-help programs (NIH).


One of the greatest benefits of receiving treatment while incarcerated is breaking the cycle of drug relapse and recidivism (NIDA, 2014). Despite this benefit to individuals and to general public health and safety, two-thirds of jails do not offer evidence-based treatments to inmates (SAMHSA, 2015)